סבר לה כוותיה בחדא ופליג עליה בחדא
The Gemara answers: He holds in accordance with his opinion with regard to one issue, and disagrees with him with regard to one issue. In other words, Rabbi Meir holds in accordance with Rabbi Akiva’s opinion that the harvesting of fodder that has not yet reached one-third of its growth is not considered the start of the reaping of the entire crop, and he disagrees with Rabbi Akiva’s opinion that the harvesting of fodder that has reached one-third of its growth is also not considered the start of the reaping process, as Rabbi Meir maintains that this is considered the start of the reaping process even when it is performed for animals, and therefore it does not divide the field with regard to pe’a.
קוצרין מפני הנטיעות ומפני בית האבל ומפני בית המדרש מאי טעמא קצירכם אמר רחמנא ולא קציר מצוה
§ The mishna teaches: And one may reap crops prior to the omer due to potential damage to saplings growing alongside the crops; and due to the place of mourning, to create room for those consoling the mourners, who would bless them upon their return from the cemetery; and due to the need to create room for students to study, as failure to do so would lead to dereliction of Torah study in the study hall. The Gemara asks: What is the reason one is permitted to reap prior to the omer offering in these instances? The Gemara answers that the Merciful One states:“ You shall bring the sheaf of the first fruits of your harvest to the priest” (Leviticus 23:10). The use of the term“ your harvest” indicates that the omer offering’s reaping must precede any personal harvest, but it does not need to precede reaping for the purpose of a mitzva.
ולא יעשה כריכות אבל מניחן צבתים מאי טעמא דכמה דאפשר לא טרחינן
§ The mishna teaches: After reaping the crops for any of these reasons, one may not fashion them into sheaves, but he leaves them unbound. The Gemara asks: What is the reason? The Gemara answers: Although reaping is technically permitted, one should limit his involvement with the new grain. Therefore, as much as possible to avoid exerting effort in involvement with the grain, we do not exert effort.
מצות העומר להביא מן הקמה תנו רבנן ואם תקריב מנחת בכורים מה תלמוד לומר לפי שמצות העומר להביא מן הקמה מנין שאם לא מצא מן הקמה יביא מן העומרין תלמוד לומר תקריב
§ The mishna teaches that the mitzva of the omer is to bring the barley from the standing grain. The Sages taught in a baraita:
What is the meaning when the verse states:“ And if you bring a meal offering of first fruits to the Lord, you shall bring for the meal offering of your first fruits grain in the ear parched with fire, even groats of the fresh ear” (Leviticus 2:14)? The baraita explains: Since the mitzva of the omer is to bring the barley from the standing grain, from where is it derived that if one does not find barley from the standing grain, he should bring it from the harvested and gathered sheaves? The verse states: “ You shall bring, ” to include this scenario.
דבר אחר תקריב לפי שמצוה להביא מן הלח ומנין שאם לא מצא מן הלח יביא מן היבש תלמוד לומר תקריב דבר אחר תקריב לפי שמצותו לקצור בלילה מנין שאם נקצר ביום כשר תלמוד לומר תקריב
Alternatively, the baraita suggests another reason why the verse states:“ You shall bring. ” Since it is a mitzva to bring the omer from the moist grain, one can ask: From where is it derived that if one does not find barley from the moist grain, he should bring it from the dry grain? The verse states: “ You shall bring, ” to include this case. Alternatively, the term“ you shall bring” teaches the following: Since the mitzva of the omer is for it to be reaped at night, from where is it derived that if it was reaped during the daytime, it is fit? The verse states: “ You shall bring. ”
ודוחה את השבת תלמוד לומר תקריב תקריב כל שהוא תקריב מכל מקום תקריב ואפילו בשבת תקריב ואפילו בטומאה
The baraita adds more halakhot that are derived from this same verse. From where is it derived that the omer offering overrides Shabbat? The verse states: “ You shall bring. ” Also, this term:“ You shall bring, ” teaches that the omer is brought in any manner that it is found, even from gathered sheaves. Furthermore, the term“ you shall bring, ” teaches that the omer crop may be brought from anywhere in Eretz Yisrael, if none is found near Jerusalem. Additionally,“ you shall bring” teaches that it may be brought even on Shabbat. Lastly,“ you shall bring” teaches that it may be brought even in a state of ritual impurity.
נקצר ביום כשר והתנן כל הלילה כשר לקצירת העומר ולהקטיר חלבים ואברים זה הכלל דבר שמצותו כל היום כשר כל היום דבר שמצותו בלילה כשר כל הלילה
§ The mishna teaches: If it was reaped during the day, it is fit. The Gemara asks: But didn’t we learn in a mishna ( Megilla 20b): All mitzvot that must be performed at night may be performed anytime during that night. Therefore, the entire night is valid for reaping the omer on the night following the first day of Passover, for burning the fats of offerings that had been brought during the preceding day, and for burning the limbs of burnt offerings. This is the principle: A matter that it is a mitzva to perform during the entire day is valid if performed anytime during the entire day, and likewise a matter that it is a mitzva to perform at night is valid if performed anytime during the entire night.
קתני לילה דומיא דיום מה דיום בלילה לא אף דלילה ביום נמי לא
The Gemara analyzes this mishna: The mishna teaches the principle of mitzvot performed at night as being similar to the principle of those performed during the day. From this one can infer that just as in the case of a mitzva whose prescribed time is by day, if it is performed at night it is not valid, so too with regard to a mitzva whose prescribed time is at night, if it is performed by day it is also not valid. If so, why does the mishna here teach that if the omer was reaped during the day it is fit?
Rabba said: It is not difficult. This mishna, which teaches that the omer reaped during the day is valid, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and that mishna in Megilla , which states that any nighttime mitzva performed during the day is not valid, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. As it is taught in a baraita ( Tosefta 3: 9): In a case where a priest was standing and sacrificing the omer meal offering and it became ritually impure in his hand, if there is another measure of barley grain that is ready to be reaped, then one says to the priest: Reap the barley and bring another meal offering in its stead. And if there is no alternative meal offering available, one says to him: Be shrewd and keep silent; i. e., do not tell anyone that it is impure. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.
רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון אומר בין כך ובין כך אומר לו הוי פקח ושתוק שכל העומר שנקצר שלא כמצותו פסול
Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: In either case, one says to him: Be shrewd and keep silent, as any omer offering that is harvested not in accordance with the procedure dictated by its mitzva is unfit. Likewise, one may not reap the barley during the daytime, as its prescribed time is at night.
With regard to the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, that barley for the omer offering that is reaped by day is unfit, Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, said his statement in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, the teacher of his father. As we learned in a mishna ( Shabbat 130a): Rabbi Akiva stated a principle: Any prohibited labor that can be performed on Shabbat eve, i. e., before Shabbat begins, does not override Shabbat.
And furthermore, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, who said that the reaping of barley for the omer offering is a mitzva. As we learned in a mishna ( Shevi’it 1: 4) that Rabbi Yishmael says: The verse: “ In plowing time and in harvest you shall rest” (Exodus 34:21), is not referring to the prohibition against farming the land during the Sabbatical Year, as one might have thought. Rather, it is referring to the prohibition against performing labor on Shabbat. And the reason that the verse mentions these two particular forms of labor is to teach that just as the plowing that is prohibited on Shabbat is an otherwise voluntary act, as plowing is never required by the Torah, so too, the harvesting that is prohibited on Shabbat is voluntary. Therefore, the harvesting of the omer is excluded from the prohibition, as it is a mitzva. Consequently, the barley for the omer is harvested on the sixteenth of Nisan, even if it occurs on Shabbat.
ואי סלקא דעתך נקצר שלא כמצותו כשר אמאי דחי שבת נקצריה מערב שבת אלא מדדחי שבת שמע מינה נקצר שלא כמצותו פסול
Rabbi Yoḥanan explains why Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael: And Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, reached his opinion by the following reasoning: If it enters your mind to say that barley for the omer offering that is reaped not in accordance with the procedure dictated by its mitzva is nevertheless fit, why would it override Shabbat? Let one reap it on Shabbat eve. Rather, from the fact that the reaping overrides Shabbat, learn from here that if it was reaped not in accordance with its mitzva, it is unfit.
The Gemara comments: Isn’t Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi also a student of Rabbi Shimon, who was a student of Rabbi Akiva? Since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was a student of Rabbi Shimon, and by extension of Rabbi Akiva, he should accept Rabbi Akiva’s principle that any prohibited labor that can be performed on Shabbat eve does not override Shabbat. If so, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds that if the omer was not performed at night it should be done by day, why does its harvest override Shabbat? Let it be harvested on Shabbat eve.
The Gemara cites a proof for its claim that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was a student of Rabbi Shimon. But isn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When we would study Torah with Rabbi Shimon in Tekoa, we would carry to him oil and a towel [aluntit] from the courtyard to the roof and from the roof into an enclosure similar to a courtyard, and from one enclosure to another enclosure, until we reached the spring in which we would bathe, without passing through a public domain.
The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi concedes that reaping barley for the omer offering overrides Shabbat, in accordance with Rabbi Akiva. But this is not because it is unfit if reaped at an improper time. Rather, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds in accordance with the other opinion of Rabbi Shimon, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon said: Come and see how dear is a mitzva performed in its proper time. As burning the fats and limbs is valid all night, and therefore it is possible to wait until the conclusion of Shabbat and burn them at night, but nevertheless one would not wait with them until nightfall; rather, one burns them immediately, even on Shabbat. Likewise, when it comes to the reaping of the omer, although it is fit if reaped during the previous day, reaping at night still overrides Shabbat because a mitzva is dear when performed in its proper time.