ובלבד שלא ידלג מסוף הספר לתחילתו
All this is provided that he does not skip from the end of the book to its beginning, since then it would be clear to everyone that he is skipping text.
וגולל ספר תורה וכו׳ וכל כך למה כדי שלא להוציא לעז על ספר תורה
§ It was taught in the mishna: The High Priest furls the Torah scroll and places it on his bosom and says: More than what I have read before you is written here. The Gemara comments: And why must he say all this? It is so as not to cast aspersions on the Torah scroll, because people might think that the portion he read by heart is not written there.
§ It was further taught in the mishna: The Torah portion beginning with the verse: “ And on the tenth, ” from the book of Numbers (29: 7), he reads by heart. The Gemara asks: Why does he read it by heart? Let him furl the scroll to that portion and read it from the text. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said that Rav Sheshet said: It is because one may not furl a Torah scroll in public, out of respect for the community. It is inappropriate to make the community wait until they have reached the next section.
But why not let another Torah scroll be brought that has previously been furled to that portion and read from it? Rav Huna bar Yehuda said: People might mistakenly think the second scroll was brought due to a flaw that was found in the first one. And Reish Lakish said a different reason: A second scroll should not be brought due to the fact that doing do will cause an unnecessary blessing to be recited; before reading from a new scroll the High Priest would have to repeat the blessings required upon reading from the Torah. Therefore, it is preferable that he read by heart.
ומי חיישינן לפגמא והאמר רבי יצחק נפחא ראש חודש טבת שחל להיות בשבת מביאין שלש תורות וקורין אחת בענינו של יום ואחת של ראש חודש ואחת של חנוכה
The Gemara questions Rav Huna bar Yehuda’s answer: Are we really concerned that people will think the first scroll had a flaw? Didn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa say: When the New Moon of Tevet, which always occurs during Hanukkah, occurs on Shabbat, one brings and reads from three Torah scrolls. One reads from one scroll the topic of the day, i. e., the weekly portion; and from one scroll the portion of the New Moon; and from one scroll a passage related to Hanukkah. It is apparent from the statement of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa that many Torah scrolls may be used, and there is no concern that people will mistakenly think one or more had a flaw.
תלתא גברי בתלתא ספרי ליכא פגמא חד גברא בתרי ספרי איכא פגמא
The Gemara explains: When three men read from three scrolls there is no concern that people will think there was a flaw, since people assume that it is befitting for each individual to receive his own scroll. But when one man reads from two scrolls, there is a concern that people will think there is a flaw, and they will not realize that this was done only to avoid forcing the community to wait while the scroll was furled.
ומברך עליה שמונה ברכות תנו רבנן על התורה כדרך שמברכים בבית הכנסת על העבודה ועל ההודאה ועל מחילת העון כתיקנה ועל המקדש בפני עצמו ועל הכהנים בפני עצמן ועל ישראל בפני עצמן ועל שאר תפלה
§ It was taught in the mishna: And the High Priest recites eight blessings after the reading. The Sages taught in a baraita that these are the eight blessings:
The blessing concerning the Torah is recited in the usual way one recites a blessing in the synagogue: Who gives the Torah;
The three blessings: concerning the Temple service, concerning thanksgiving, and concerning pardon of iniquity, are all recited according to their established forms in the prayers;
The blessing concerning the Temple in and of itself;
The blessing concerning the priests in and of themselves;
The blessing concerning the Jewish people in and of itself;
The blessing concerning the rest of the prayer.
תנו רבנן ושאר התפלה רנה תחינה בקשה מלפניך על עמך ישראל שצריכין להושע וחותם בשומע תפלה ואחר כך כל אחד ואחד מביא ספר תורה מביתו וקורא בו כדי להראות חזותו לרבים
The Sages taught in another baraita: And the blessing concerning the rest of the prayer reads: Song, supplication, petition before You for Your people Israel, who need to be saved. And he adds an additional supplication and concludes the blessing with: The One Who hears prayer. And after the High Priest concludes his reading, each and every person present brings a Torah scroll from his house, although in fact each person had already brought one on Yom Kippur eve, and reads from it for himself in order to show its beautiful appearance to the community. This is considered beautification of the mitzva.
§ It was taught in the mishna: One who sees the High Priest reading the Torah does not see the bull and goat that are burned, and vice versa. This is not because one is not permitted to see both but because there is a distance between them and they are performed simultaneously. The Gemara comments: It is obvious that this is not due to a prohibition; what possible reason could there be to prohibit this? The Gemara answers: This was taught explicitly lest you say that it is prohibited in accordance with the statement of Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: One does not pass over the opportunity to perform mitzvot, even if it is in order to perform a different mitzva.
ומאי מצוה ברב עם הדרת מלך קא משמע לן
The Gemara clarifies why this principle might have applied here. And what mitzva is there in hearing the reading of the High Priest? It is a fulfillment of the principle expressed in the verse:“ The king’s glory is in the multitude of people” (Proverbs 14:28). Having a large assembly involved in a mitzva gives honor to God. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that the problem with seeing both events was only a practical one.
מתני׳ אם בבגדי בוץ קורא קדש ידיו ורגליו פשט ירד וטבל עלה ונסתפג והביאו לו בגדי זהב ולבש וקדש ידיו ורגליו
MISHNA: If the High Priest read the Torah in sacred white fine linen garments, he then sanctified his hands and feet as he did each time before removing the priestly vestments. He then removed the linen garments, descended to the ritual bath, and immersed. Afterward he ascended and dried himself with a towel, and they brought him the golden garments of the High Priesthood, and he dressed in them and sanctified his hands and feet.
The mishna addresses those offerings whose sacrifice has still not been mentioned. The verses in Leviticus, chapter 16, detail the special offerings of the atonement service of Yom Kippur. Of those offerings, the ram of the High Priest and the ram of the people have still not been addressed. In addition to this, the additional offerings of Yom Kippur detailed in Numbers, chapter 29, have not yet been discussed. These include seven one-year-old lambs and a bull to be brought as a burnt-offering and a goat to be brought as a sin-offering. The mishna continues: He emerged and offered his ram and the ram of the people and the seven unblemished year-old lambs mandated to be offered that day. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Akiva says: Those offerings were not sacrificed at this point; rather, they were sacrificed with the daily morning offering; and the bull of the Yom Kippur burnt-offering; and the goat whose services are performed outside of the Sanctuary, i. e., in the Temple courtyard, were sacrificed with the daily afternoon offering.
קדש ידיו ורגליו ופשט וירד וטבל ועלה ונסתפג
After sacrificing these offerings, he sanctified his hands and feet and removed the golden garments, and he descended into the ritual bath and immersed and ascended and dried himself.
הביאו לו בגדי לבן ולבש וקדש ידיו ורגליו נכנס להוציא את הכף ואת המחתה קדש ידיו ורגליו ופשט וירד וטבל עלה ונסתפג
They brought him the white garments again, and he dressed in them and sanctified his hands and feet. Afterward he entered the Holy of Holies to take out the incense spoon and the coal pan, which he had brought there earlier. He again sanctified his hands and feet and removed the white garments and descended to the ritual bath and immersed and ascended and dried himself with a towel.
הביאו לו בגדי זהב ולבש וקדש ידיו ורגליו ונכנס להקטיר קטורת של בין הערבים ולהטיב את הנרות וקדש ידיו ורגליו ופשט וירד וטבל עלה ונסתפג
They brought him the golden garments, and he dressed in them and sanctified his hands and feet and entered the Sanctuary to burn the afternoon incense and to remove the ashes from the lamps, which signified the end of the day’s service. And he sanctified his hands and feet and removed the golden garments, and he descended to the ritual bath and immersed and ascended and dried himself.
הביאו לו בגדי עצמו ולבש ומלוין אותו עד ביתו ויום טוב היה עושה לאוהביו בשעה שיצא בשלום מן הקודש
They then brought him his own clothing and he dressed, since the service was complete and Yom Kippur was over; and the people escort him to his house in deference to him. And the High Priest would make a feast for his loved ones and his friends when he emerged in peace from the Sanctuary.
גמ׳ איבעיא להו היכי קאמר עם תמיד של שחר היו קרבין ופר העולה ושעיר הנעשה בחוץ עם תמיד של בין הערבים
GEMARA: It was taught in the mishna: Rabbi Akiva said the seven lambs were sacrificed with the daily morning offering; and the bull of the Yom Kippur burnt-offering; and the goat whose services are performed outside of the Sanctuary, i. e., in the Temple courtyard, with the daily afternoon offering. It is unclear whether the middle clause concerning the bull should be read as a continuation of the first clause, or as relating to the latter clause. The Gemara seeks to clarify this ambiguity. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is Rabbi Akiva say ing? Does he mean to say the seven lambs were sacrificed with the daily morning offering, whereas the bull of the Yom Kippur burnt-offering and the goat whose services are performed outside were sacrificed with the daily afternoon offering?
או דילמא הכי קאמר עם תמיד של שחר היו קרבין ופר העולה בהדייהו ושעיר הנעשה בחוץ עם תמיד של בין הערבים
Or perhaps this is what he is say ing: The seven lambs were sacrificed with the daily morning offering and the bull of the Yom Kippur burnt-offering together with them, whereas the goat whose services are performed outside, i. e., in the Temple courtyard, was sacrificed with the daily afternoon offering.
ותו פר העולה לרבי אליעזר דשייריה אימת עביד ליה
And furthermore, another dilemma: With regard to the bull of the Yom Kippur burnt-offering, according to Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion: Since he omitted mention of it, it must be clarified when the High Priest performs its sacrifice. Is it sacrificed at this point in the day, or at another time?
And furthermore, another dilemma: According to both Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion and according to Rabbi Akiva’s opinion, since neither of them mentioned the portions of the sin-offering to be consumed on the altar, it must be clarified when the High Priest performs their service and places them on the altar.
Rava said: You will only find it properly explained either according to the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer as taught by the school of Shmuel, or according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva as taught in the Tosefta .
The school of Shmuel taught that Rabbi Eliezer says: He came out and offered his ram and the ram of the people and the portions of the sin-offering to be consumed on the altar. But the bull of the Yom Kippur burnt-offering and the seven lambs and the goat whose services are performed outside were sacrificed with the daily afternoon offering.
What is Rabbi Akiva’s opinion as taught in the Tosefta ? As it was taught that Rabbi Akiva says: The bull of the Yom Kippur burnt-offering and the seven lambs were sacrificed with the daily morning offering, as it is stated with regard to the additional offerings of other Festivals:“ Besides the morning burnt-offering which is the daily burnt-offering you shall sacrifice these” (Numbers 28:23), indicating that the additional offerings of the day should be sacrificed together with the daily offering. And afterward the service of the day, which is unique to Yom Kippur, is performed.