what? The Gemara answers: They serve to add women, and this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Women are obligated in the mitzva of reading the Megilla, as they too were participants in that miracle.
הכל חייבין בזימון לאתויי מאי לאתויי נשים ועבדים דתניא נשים מזמנות לעצמן ועבדים מזמנין לעצמן
The Gemara asks: What is added by the ruling of the baraita: Everyone is obligated to form a zimmun and recite Grace after Meals as a group? The Gemara answers: The baraita serves to add women and slaves. As it is taught in a baraita:
Women form a zimmun for themselves and slaves form a zimmun for themselves.
הכל מצטרפין לזימון לאתויי מאי לאתויי קטן היודע למי מברכין דאמר רב נחמן יודע למי מברכין מזמנין עליו
The Gemara further inquires: What is added by the baraita: Everyone is included in a zimmun? This serves to add a minor who knows to Whom one recites a blessing. As Rav Naḥman says: A minor who knows to Whom one recites a blessing is included in a zimmun.
הכל מטמאין בזיבה לאתויי מאי לאתויי תינוק בן יומו דתניא איש מה תלמוד לומר איש איש לרבות תינוק בן יום אחד שמטמא בזיבה דברי רבי יהודה
§ The Gemara asks: What is added by the clause in the mishna ( Zavim 2: 1): Everyone becomes impure by means of a gonorrhea-like discharge [ziva]? This serves to add that even a day-old baby who has such a discharge becomes impure. As it is taught in a baraita:
It would have been sufficient for the verse to state: A man. Why does the verse state:“ When any man has an issue out of his flesh, his issue is impure” (Leviticus 15:2)? This serves to include a day-old baby who has such a discharge, to teach that even he becomes impure as one who experiences ziva. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.
רבי ישמעאל בנו של רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר והזב את זובו לזכר ולנקבה לזכר כל שהוא זכר בין קטן בין גדול לנקבה כל שהיא נקבה בין קטנה בין גדולה אם כן מה תלמוד לומר איש איש דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם
Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, says that this amplification is not necessary, as the verse states: “ And of them that have an issue, whether it be a male or a female” (Leviticus 15:33).“ A male” includes anyone who is male, whether a small child or an adult; “ a female” includes anyone who is female, whether a small child or an adult. If so, why does the verse state: “ Any man”? The Torah spoke in the language of men, i. e., this is a normal way to phrase the sentence, and therefore one should not derive a halakha from the extra word.
הכל מטמאין בטמא מת לאתויי מאי לאתויי קטן סלקא דעתך אמינא איש אשר יטמא ולא יתחטא איש אין קטן לא קא משמע לן ועל הנפשות אשר היו שם
The Gemara asks: What is added by the baraita: Everyone becomes impure with impurity imparted by a corpse? The baraita teaches it to add a minor. The Gemara elaborates: It might enter your mind to say that since the verse states: “ But the man that shall be impure and shall not purify himself” (Numbers 19:20), one should derive from here that a man, i. e., an adult, yes, he becomes impure, but a minor does not. Therefore, the verse teaches us in the context of purification with purification water from impurity imparted by a corpse: “ And sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all the vessels, and upon the persons that were there” (Numbers 19:18). This indicates that all persons who were there became impure, regardless of age.
אלא איש למעוטי מאי למעוטי קטן מכרת
The Gemara asks: But if so, what does the term“ the man” serve to exclude? The Gemara answers: It serves to exclude a minor from excision from the World -to- Come [karet], which is mentioned in that verse: “ That soul shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he has defiled the Sanctuary of the Lord” (Numbers 19:20). In other words, the term“ the man” serves to teach that if a minor becomes impure and then enters the Temple, he is not liable to receive karet.
הכל מטמאין בנגעים לאתויי מאי לאתויי קטן סלקא דעתך אמינא איש צרוע כתיב איש אין קטן לא קא משמע לן
The Gemara further asks: What is added by the ruling of the mishna ( Nega’im 3: 1): Everyone becomes impure by means of leprous marks? The Gemara answers: This serves to add a minor. As it might enter your mind to say that since it is written in the verse: “ He is a leprous man, he is impure” (Leviticus 13:44), this is teaching that a man, i. e., an adult, yes, he does become impure, but a minor does not. Therefore, the tanna teaches us that a minor becomes impure by means of leprous marks.
ואימא הכי נמי אדם כי יהיה בעור בשרו מכל מקום
The Gemara asks: But why not say that the halakha is indeed so, that a minor does not become impure by means of leprous marks? The Gemara answers that the verse states:“ When a person shall have in the skin of his flesh” (Leviticus 13:2), to include all people, in any case, irrespective of age.
ואלא איש למה לי לכדתניא איש אין לי אלא איש אשה מנין כשהוא אומר והצרוע הרי כאן שנים
The Gemara asks: But in that case, why do I need the term: “ He is a leprous man” (Leviticus 13:44)? The Gemara answers: It comes for that which is taught in a baraita:
From the phrase“ he is a leprous man” I have derived only a leprous man. From where is it derived that leprous marks also render a woman impure? When the subsequent verse states: “ And the leper in whom the affliction is” (Leviticus 13:45), there are two individuals indicated here, male and female, as this verse did not need to restate: “ And the leper, ” since the subject of this clause was clear from the previous verse.
אם כן מה תלמוד לומר איש לענין של מטה איש פורע ופורם ואין האשה פורעת ופורמת
If so, what is the meaning when the verse states:“ A leprous man”? This is referring to the matter of the leper rending his clothes and letting his hair grow wild, which is stated in the verse below:“ His clothes shall be rent, and the hair of his head shall go loose” (Leviticus 13:45). The verse therefore teaches that a man who is a leper lets his hair grow and rends his garments, but a woman who is a leper does not let her hair grow and does not rend her garments.
הכל רואין את הנגעים הכל כשרין לראות את הנגעים לאתויי מאי לאתויי שאינו בקי בהן ובשמותיהן
The Gemara asks: What is added by the ruling of the baraita: Everyone may inspect leprous marks in order to declare them pure or impure, and the clause of another baraita: Everyone is fit to inspect leprous marks in order to declare them pure or impure. The Gemara answers: These statements serve to add a priest who is not expert in distinguishing between them, the different types of leprous marks, and in identifying their names.
והאמר מר אינו בקי בהן ובשמותיהן אינו רואה את הנגעים אמר רבינא לא קשיא הא דמסברי ליה וסבר הא דמסברי ליה ולא סבר
The Gemara asks: But didn’t the Master say that any priest who is not expert in distinguishing between them and in identifying their names is not authorized to inspect the leprous marks and make a decision with regard to them? Ravina said: This is not difficult. This statement, that the priest is fit, is referring to a situation where if they explain to him he understands; whereas that statement, that he is not fit, is referring to a case where even if they explain to him he still does not understand.
§ The Gemara asks: What is added by the statement of the mishna ( Para 5: 4): Everyone is fit to sanctify the ashes of the red heifer, i. e., to pour the water over them? The Gemara answers that according to Rabbi Yehuda the statement serves to add a minor, and according to the Rabbis, who disqualify a minor, it serves to add a woman. As we learned in a mishna ( Para 5: 4): Everyone is fit to sanctify the ashes of the red heifer except for a deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor. Rabbi Yehuda deems a minor fit, but deems a woman and a hermaphrodite, who has both male and female characteristics, unfit.
The Gemara asks: What is added by the statement of the mishna ( Para 12: 10): Everyone is qualified to sprinkle the purification waters on one who is ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse? The Gemara answers that this serves to add one who is uncircumcised. And this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar says: If one who is uncircumcised sprinkled the purification water, his sprinkling is valid.
הכל שוחטין לאתויי מאי חדא לאתויי כותי וחדא לאתויי ישראל משומד
The Gemara asks: What is added by the ruling of the mishna ( Ḥullin 2a, 15b): Everyone slaughters? The Gemara explains that the mishna teaches this once to add a Samaritan who slaughters, i. e., his slaughter is valid. And the one other mention of this serves to add a Jew who is an apostate [meshummad].
הכל מעלין לארץ ישראל לאתויי מאי
The Gemara further asks: What is added by the statement of the mishna ( Ketubot 110b): Everyone can force others to ascend to Eretz Yisrael, i. e., one can compel his family and household to immigrate to Eretz Yisrael?